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Article: Untouchability: Discrimination and Exclusion in the Name of Purity

Untouchability: Discrimination and Exclusion in the Name of Purity

Untouchability: Discrimination and Exclusion in the Name of Purity

India, a land of diverse cultures and religions, is also marked by a deeply entrenched social hierarchy that perpetuates discrimination and exclusion—the practice of untouchability. This system, rooted in notions of purity and pollution, has marginalized and oppressed certain communities for centuries. In this blog, we delve into the origins, manifestations, and consequences of untouchability, shedding light on the dehumanizing reality faced by those labeled as "untouchables."

Origins and Caste Hierarchy

Untouchability finds its origins in the caste system, an ancient social structure that classified individuals into different castes based on birth. At the top of the hierarchy, the Brahmins held the highest status as priests and scholars. The Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras occupied the intermediate rungs, each with their respective roles and occupations. Below them, outside the varna system, were the untouchables, also known as Dalits or Scheduled Castes.

Dalits were considered impure and polluted, relegated to performing so-called "unclean" occupations such as manual scavenging, leatherwork, and sanitation. They were excluded from mainstream society and subjected to severe discrimination, denied access to education, employment, and basic rights.

Manifestations of Discrimination

The practice of untouchability manifests in various ways, permeating multiple aspects of daily life. Dalits often face segregation and exclusion from public spaces, places of worship, and even sources of water. They are denied entry into temples, prevented from participating in religious rituals, and subjected to social ostracization.

Education and employment opportunities for Dalits are limited due to systemic discrimination. They often face biased treatment, unequal pay, and barriers to upward mobility. Dalit women face additional layers of discrimination, as they bear the brunt of gender-based violence and exploitation.

Consequences and Impact

The consequences of untouchability are profound, perpetuating cycles of poverty, illiteracy, and social marginalization. Restricted access to quality education and economic opportunities stifles social mobility and perpetuates the economic disparities faced by Dalit communities. Discrimination and exclusion lead to a lack of representation and political voice, further marginalizing their concerns and needs.

Untouchability also inflicts severe psychological trauma on Dalits, eroding their self-esteem and sense of identity. The constant reminder of their untouchable status leads to internalized oppression and a perpetuation of the belief in their inherent inferiority.

Challenging Untouchability

Efforts to challenge untouchability and eradicate caste-based discrimination have been ongoing for decades. The Indian Constitution prohibits untouchability, emphasizing equality and social justice for all citizens. Affirmative action policies, known as reservations, have been implemented to provide representation and opportunities for marginalized communities. However, the effectiveness and implementation of these measures remain areas of debate and ongoing struggle.

Social reform movements, grassroots organizations, and Dalit activists have played a crucial role in raising awareness and advocating for the rights of Dalits. Through education, activism, and legal interventions, there have been some positive changes. However, dismantling centuries-old social structures requires sustained effort and a collective commitment to social justice.


Untouchability, born out of the caste system, continues to cast a dark shadow over Indian society. The discrimination and exclusion faced by Dalits are a grave violation of human rights and dignity. Recognizing the deeply rooted biases and working towards a more inclusive society is crucial.

By challenging untouchability, promoting equality, and providing equal opportunities, India can strive to dismantle the oppressive structures that perpetuate discrimination. It is through education, awareness, and collective action that we can pave the way for a society that respects and upholds the dignity of every individual, regardless of their caste or background.


Darshita Nautiyal

(The images used in this podcast are not owned by Anime Devta, they are just to help the readers) 

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